- Does cystitis happen in men?
- Causes of cystitis in men.
- Symptoms and signs of cystitis in men.
- Treatment of cystitis in men.
Does Cystitis Happen in Men?
Cystitis is considered to be a female problem; therefore, many people believe that this disease does not occur in men. However, it is not. The disease can affect the stronger sex, it just does not happen as often as in women. The risk group includes those men who have crossed the 45-year-old milestone. They account for up to 1% of all reported cases of the disease.
Therefore, it is important to know – in males, bladder inflammation can be diagnosed. In this case, the symptoms of the disease are similar to those in women: pain and cramps during urination, pain above the pubis, blood in the urine, the appearance of mucus in it. Such signs most often indicate precisely the development of cystitis. Their appearance is due to damage to the mucous membrane lining the bladder. It becomes inflamed and stops functioning normally.
In order to diagnose it is necessary to take urine for analysis (bacteriological and microscopic), ultrasound of all organs of the urinary system. Sometimes cystography, CT is prescribed. The disease should be treated with the obligatory use of antibacterial agents, with the use of physiotherapy and herbal remedies. Depending on the symptoms of the disease, pain relievers, sedatives and other drugs may be prescribed to alleviate the patient’s condition.
Causes of Cystitis in Men
It is not difficult for a young man to avoid cystitis. For this, it is enough not to violate the rules of personal hygiene. The older a man becomes, the more likely he will develop diseases of the reproductive and urinary system. They are the ones that cause cystitis. If in women in this matter an ascending infection plays a leading role, then in the stronger sex the disease often becomes a consequence of pathological processes in the urethra, epididymis, prostate gland, in the seminal vesicles.
In addition, the causes of the development of the disease can be:
- Urological disorders that contribute to urinary retention in the bladder. This is often due to a narrowing of the urethra.
- The appearance of a mechanical barrier, for example, a stone, a foreign body.
- Diseases of the prostate gland, such as adenoma.
- Prostatitis, vesiculitis, urethritis. It is against the background of these internal diseases that men develop bladder inflammation, since it is extremely difficult to get infections from the outside.
- Latent infections, among them: chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, gonorrhea.
- Actinomycosis, schistosomiasis, and purpura become rare causes of cystitis.
A descending infection can be caused by renal tuberculosis and pyelonephritis. Particular attention should be paid to tuberculosis, as the cause of the development of cystitis in men. Often this disease does not give itself away. Sub-febrile body temperature and unexplained weakness may occur. Sometimes there are minor signs of prostatitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis, etc. Moreover, the situation in the country for tuberculosis is quite tense. Up to 90% of the adult population are carriers of the infection, many of whom have reduced immunity. The fall of the body’s defenses occurs against the background of stress, alcoholism, eating disorders. All these are favorable conditions for the bacteria to pass from the latent phase to the active one. At the same time, it affects not only the lungs, but also other organs, including the kidneys, testicles, and the prostate. The danger lies in the fact that often cultures on Koch’s bacillus give a false negative result, and the infection is disguised as other, not so dangerous diseases.
Infectious and viral diseases (for example, sinusitis, tonsillitis, flu) localized in the upper respiratory tract can cause inflammation. Bacteria enter the urinary system organ through the blood stream. Therefore, cystitis may well become a complication of any infectious process, regardless of its location.
Introduction of infection during diagnostic procedures. This can be catheter placement or cystoscopy.
Performed surgical interventions in the abdominal cavity, urological operations – all this can cause the development of the disease.
Malignant tumors of the prostate and urethra.
In addition, there are additional risk factors that lead to a drop in immune forces, which becomes the cause of the development of the disease. Among these factors, hypothermia, lack of sleep, stress, diabetes mellitus, trauma to the abdominal cavity, spinal column are noted.
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Symptoms and Signs of Cystitis in Men
Among the symptoms that are a consequence of the development of cystitis in men, the following are distinguished:
- During the acute stage of the disease, a man needs frequent emptying of his bladder. In this case, the outlet volume can be no more than 15 ml.
- Urinary incontinence.
- Painful sensations when trying to empty the bladder. In order to start urinating, a man has to make an effort. The peak of pain occurs at the beginning and end of the act. Its character ranges from intense to tolerant. Burning and stinging sensations often appear. Between the acts of urination, a man experiences pain in the groin and suprapubic region, as well as in the penis.
There may be an increase in body temperature, which is accompanied by general symptoms of intoxication. The patient suffers from a headache. From chills, weakness, etc. With such symptoms, the patient is hospitalized.
Hemorrhagic or gangrenous cystitis is formed in severe disease. At the same time, the excreted urine acquires a cloudy shade, often blood and mucus are found in it. The smell becomes pungent, putrid. The volumes of fluid decrease and often do not exceed 400 ml per day, which is significantly less than the prescribed volume.
If the inflammation has passed into a chronic stage, then the pains become blurred, only mucus is found in the urine, no blood is released. However, periods of calm are often followed by periods of exacerbation.
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Treatment of Cystitis in Men
If a complete list of symptoms of cystitis or at least a few signs was noticed, a man urgently needs to seek medical help. The diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the genitourinary system is dealt with by a urologist. The diagnosis is impossible without a thorough examination and a complete history taking.
To eliminate the likelihood of a medical error, urologists provide for a comprehensive study of the patient in the following directions:
Collection of urine for bacterial culture. This will make it possible to identify the pathogen, as well as to determine which drugs it has a special sensitivity to.
Taking a urogenital swab to detect latent sexually transmitted infections.
Urine collection for general analysis. The presence of an inflammatory process is determined by the increased content of leukocytes and erythrocytes in this biological fluid. Also, there should be no mucus normally. If an acidic reaction of urine is found, then this serves as a basis for suspicion of tuberculosis infection.
It is not advisable to use ultrasound examination of the inflamed organ itself for diagnosis. This is due to the fact that during the acute phase of the disease, the patient will not be able to accumulate the necessary volume of urine, which is required for adequate visualization. However, ultrasound of the kidneys and prostate is mandatory. This is a fairly informative method for determining the cause of the disease.
It is necessary to perform cystoscopy if the patient has a chronic form of cystitis. The technique allows you to detect neoplasms, stones and other foreign bodies. In addition, a biopsy is performed during the cystoscopy.
Organic obstruction often accompanies male cystitis. To determine it, uroflowmetry and cystourethrography will be required.
When a person suffers from severe pain, he has an acute urinary retention and at the same time the effect of the taken painkillers is not observed, then hospitalization is indicated. In a hospital, complex diagnostics are carried out, designed to identify either the existing pathogen, or concomitant pathology or infection of the urinary or reproductive system.
Regarding how the therapy of cystitis in men is carried out, there are some recommendations:
Bed Rest. A patient who has signs of an acute stage of cystitis urgently needs bed rest. In the presence of a high temperature, it is reduced with the use of antipyretic drugs. The volume of fluid must be sufficient to flush the infection out of the body. The patient must drink at least 2500 ml per day. It is imperative to follow a diet that implies a ban on sour and spicy foods.
Medicines for cystitis in men (antibiotics). taking antibacterial agents. Adequate selection of a drug can be carried out only after the identification of the causative agent of the disease and clarification of its sensitivity to a particular drug. Most often, nitrofurans (Furadonin), fluoroquinolones (Tsifran, Normaks, Nolitsin, Tsiprolet A), as well as cephalosporins are used to treat this inflammation in men. The use of any drug without prior medical advice is unacceptable. The average course of treatment is 7 days.
Phytotherapy. Herbal medicine is a mandatory item in the general treatment of men from cystitis. Various herbal teas are popular, which have diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties. They are plant-based, for example, lingonberry leaves, bearberry, and field horsetail. If the patient does not suffer from allergic reactions, then herbal medicines can alleviate the condition. Phytolysin, Cyston, Kanefron can relieve inflammation and reduce the unpleasant symptoms of the disease. There are preparations based on cranberry berry extractfor example Monurel tablets. To help the body fight infection, cranberry juice or juice made by yourself will help. However, you shouldn’t expect an immediate effect. Each herbal preparation will have to be taken for a long time period, which is due to the delay in the therapeutic result in time. Moreover, herbal medicine is not able to replace drug treatment. Therefore, both methods must be combined; you cannot do without taking broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Taking painkillers. To relieve painful sensations that are always accompanied by cystitis in men, antispasmodics are used, for example, No-shpa or Papavern. In addition to these drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example, Diclofenac or Nimesil, can be used.
STIs. If sexually transmitted infections have been diagnosed, then the treatment regimen will be selected in accordance with the causative agent that caused the infection. To identify a microorganism or virus, the PCR method is used.
Symptoms and treatment of cystitis depend on the underlying conditions. For example, when a man has one of the diseases of the genitourinary sphere, for example, prostatitis, adenoma, pyelonephritis and other pathologies, then they must be eliminated. After all, it is they that often become the root cause of cystitis.
Performing novocaine blockade and flushing the bladder are also therapeutic methods in urology, which allow you to quickly get rid of the disease. Washes are performed using antiseptic agents.
Physiotherapy. When the acute period of the disease is overcome, it is possible to undergo physiotherapy methods of treatment. Physiotherapy helps relieve inflammation and accelerate recovery. For the treatment of male cystitis, mud therapy, ultrasound, UHF, electrophoresis, magnetic laser therapy is used.
Sanatoriums. Spa and spa treatment is an excellent way to deal with relapses of the disease during its remission.