Cystitis in Women: Causes, Symptoms, and How to Treat?

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Cystitis in Women

Cystitis in women is one of the most common diseases of the genitourinary system. Cystitis is considered a typically female disease. According to medical statistics, 80% of all patients with cystitis are women. This is understandable from the point of view of anatomy: the urinary tract in women is much shorter than in men, which means that pathogens (which are mostly the causative agents of cystitis) meet less resistance and make a quick way to the bladder. That is why women should empty their bladder more often, and if urinary retention occurs, the risk of developing cystitis increases significantly.

Cystitis affects not only the mucous membrane of the bladder. In general, this is a fairly complex disease that entails a lot of complications and discomfort.

Cystitis is one of the most common diseases of the genitourinary system, which affects the mucous membrane of the bladder. In the course of the pathological process, for one reason or another inflammation of the bladder mucosa occurs. According to medical statistics, 80% of all patients with cystitis are women.

What is Cystitis in Women?

Symptoms, diagnostic and treatment strategies depend on many factors:

  • The nature of the pathological process;
  • Localization of inflammation;
  • Type of pathogen.

Types of Cystitis in Women

Cystitis is divided into types according to several criteria:

  • Based on the type of pathogen: bacterial cystitis (chlamydia, urea-plasma, gonorrhea, other pathogens of sexually transmitted diseases, as well as staphylococci, streptococci, Escherichia coli and others) and non-bacterial cystitis (toxic, caused by medication, allergies);
  • By the nature of the course of the disease: acute cystitis (proceeding in the acute phase with the manifestation of typical symptoms) and chronic (proceeding in a latent form or recurrent);
  • Depending on the presence and type of organic (morphological) organ changes: ulcerative, catarrhal, cystic, etc.;
  • Based on the localization of the pathological process: cystitis of the mucous membrane of the bladder, affecting the submucosal layer, affecting the muscle layer.

Symptoms of Cystitis in Women

Symptoms of Cystitis in Women
Symptoms of Cystitis in Women

Pain with Cystitis

The nature and intensity of pain and discomfort with cystitis are purely individual and depend on the pain threshold, as well as on the degree of damage to the structures of the bladder themselves.

Not all people and not always experience intense pain (cramps, burning) with this pathology. In some cases, the disease can manifest itself only with mild discomfort in the lower abdomen and pubic area (heaviness, feeling of fullness). According to statistics, in this form, acute cystitis occurs in no more than 10% of women (more often “imperceptibly” pathology occurs in men). In most women, the disease is accompanied by intense pain, which is understandable: the woman’s urethra is much wider and shorter, and this, as already mentioned, is the direct gateway to infection.

It is generally accepted that with cystitis, pain is localized only in the area of ​​the bladder. This is not entirely true. Pain can often be radiating (wandering). Pain from cystitis passes into the lumbosacral spine and patients feel as if their back hurts.

Pain syndrome can also be localized in the coccyx area. Radiating pain can be pulling, aching or dull, regardless of the intensity of physical activity, or cutting and burning. The pain syndrome is especially pronounced when urinating. The patient is “haunted” by a feeling of fullness of the bladder, when urinating, there is severe pain in the urethra, bladder and back.

The pains are often accompanied by general symptoms of intoxication of the body: headache of varying intensity (localized in the forehead), weakness and rapid fatigue, hyperthermia (increased body temperature) to 37.5 – 38 °C. Pain and manifestations of intoxication are considered as a single symptom of pathology and are inseparable from each other, although with weakened immunity, the absence of hyperthermia is possible.

Cystitis with Blood in Women

In some cases, women with cystitis may notice that the urine has a pale pink or intense red hue. There can be two reasons for this: either we are talking about acute cystitis, or about a much more severe form of it – hemorrhagic cystitis. It is relatively easy to distinguish them, with an acute form of urine becomes reddish at the end of urination, with complicated cystitis – the urine is red throughout the entire act and retains its color during all subsequent trips to the toilet.

Most often, the cause of blood in the urine is a viral lesion of the bladder mucosa (the main pathogen in this case is adenovirus). In women, hemorrhagic cystitis manifests itself relatively rarely, since with frequent urination, viruses and their waste products are quickly excreted from the body, without having time to lead to the development of tissue degeneration.

However, not in all cases the cause lies in the infection; similar forms of cystitis are caused by the use of cytostatic drugs, radiation (radiation) injury (for example, with specific therapy for malignant neoplasms).

Also, among the causes of cystitis:

  • Injury to the walls of the bladder and urethra by foreign objects;
  • Lack of muscle tone in the bladder;
  • Stagnation in the bladder, leading to the development of degenerative changes;
  • Disorders of an anatomical nature (stenosis of the lumen of the urinary tract, compression of the structures of the excretory system by an oncological neoplasm).

Therefore, most often, cystitis with blood in women is a secondary pathology caused by one or another factor.

Acute cystitis with blood and hemorrhagic is very rare. There are intense pains of a constant, persistent nature.

Frequent False Urge to Urinate

The main manifestation of such forms of the disease is the release of blood. Despite the fact that blood begins to come out only a few hours after the onset of the acute phase, the intensity of bleeding can be so high that the blood, under the influence of specific substances that make up the urine, will coagulate, forming large blood clots. Blood clots, clogging the lumen of the urethra, entail a delay in the outflow of urine and, as a result, further complicate the patient’s condition.

Itching and Burning with Cystitis

Itching and burning are perhaps the most frequent symptoms of cystitis in women after pain. Usually, both of these manifestations are observed with an allergic or infectious nature of the disease.

Cystitis in women is often associated with inflammatory lesions of the genital organs. One can be in a causal relationship with the other (for example, often with diseases of the vagina, colpitis, infectious agents can penetrate into the urethra due to its anatomical proximity and affect the bladder, as well as vice versa: an infection from the bladder with urine leaves the body and, getting on the external genital organs, leads to secondary colpitis).

Itching and burning are also often manifested in the allergic origin of cystitis. An allergen is recognized by the patient’s immune system as an antigen, as a result of which the immune system produces specific antibodies to fight the “dangerous offender”. As a result of the reaction, the antigen-antibody complex settles on mast cells (basophils) located in the region of the urethra and urethra. Under the influence of the complex, the basophils are destroyed, releasing in large quantities the substance histamine, which is a mediator of itching (i.e., a substance that irritates the epidermal nerve endings) and causes an intolerable sensation of itching and burning.

Cystitis in Women
Cystitis in Women

For similar reasons, in inflammatory lesions, itching and burning are also observed: infectious agents and toxic products of their vital activity (with a bacterial origin of the disease) or specific substances contained in medicines accumulate in large quantities in the urine. When leaving, these substances act on the superficial nerve endings.

In general, a symptom such as itching with 95% probability indicates an allergic or infectious nature of cystitis, which means that concomitant lesions of the vaginal mucosa are possible.

Can There Be A Temperature with Cystitis?

To correctly answer the question, you need to understand why the body temperature rises. Hypothermia occurs as a result of an acute immune reaction to a substance or microorganism of foreign origin. At temperatures above 37 °C, pathogens lose their former activity, and the intensity of their vital activity decreases sharply. Almost always, infectious cystitis is accompanied by an increase in body temperature in the range from 37.5 to 38.2 °C. This normal occurrence is indicative of a strong immune system capable of resisting infection. The height of the numbers largely depends on the direct causative agent of the disease.

Temperature with Cystitis
Temperature with Cystitis

How and how to bring down the temperature?

For this reason, even cystitis of an infectious nature may not lead to an increase in temperature. So, for example, the causative agent of tuberculosis in the first stages of the disease does not reveal itself with an increase in temperature, while most sexually transmitted infections and even adenovirus cause significant hyperthermia, up to values ​​of 39° C.

An excessively high temperature that threatens the patient’s life with this disease rarely rises. If this happens, it means that the disease is severe and you should immediately seek emergency medical help. Therefore, cystitis should not be considered such a harmless pathology. It is necessary to carefully monitor the dynamics of body temperature. Otherwise, a huge variety of complications may develop, up to the involvement of the kidneys in the pathological process, the onset of acute renal failure and death.

Causes of Cystitis in Women

As noted earlier, the disease in the overwhelming majority of cases develops in women, which is due to the short and wide canal of the urethra, the close location of the anus and vagina (as you know, even opportunistic micro-flora of the mucous membranes of the colon and vagina can cause the development of inflammation of the bladder, often it also happens that pathogenic microorganisms live on the mucous membranes, which do not manifest themselves until a certain point).

Causes of Cystitis in Women
Causes of Cystitis in Women

In 85-90% of cases, cystitis in women develops precisely because of the penetration of a pathogenic or opportunistic microorganism (infectious cystitis). The pathogen does not always enter the bladder from the vagina or anus.

The penetration routes can be different:

  • Descending path. The infection can pass from the kidneys to the bladder.
  • Upward path. What has already been named – from the outside through the urethra into the bladder.
  • Hematogenous pathway. It is relatively rare for a bacterium or virus to enter the bladder through the bloodstream. The cause can be any focus of an infectious lesion in the body, however, the chance that a pathogenic agent gets, for example, from the tonsils into the bladder, is extremely small, but still there.
  • Lymphogenous pathway. The pathogen enters the bladder from the inflamed pelvic organs.

However, in addition to infectious origin, cystitis can develop due to:

  • Taking some medicines. These include, for example, cytostatic drugs used to combat malignant neoplasms. During the processing of such substances by the body, the metabolite acrolein is synthesized, which actively irritates the mucous membrane of the urinary bladder, thereby causing the development of toxic (medicinal) cystitis;
  • Allergic reactions. Allergies are often local in nature. In some cases, the bladder is affected.

Very rarely, cystitis in women occurs in isolation. The reasons themselves, for the most part, are conducive to the development of a general inflammatory process in the pelvic organs: this is wearing tight synthetic underwear, and frequent changes of a sexual partner, and neglect of the rules of intimate hygiene. All this leads to the fact that the woman herself creates favorable conditions for the reproduction of representatives of pathogenic microflora. According to statistics, about 80% of cystitis pathogens are Escherichia coli, 10-15% are staphylococcus and about 4-5% are other pathogens, such as Klebsiella, Proteus amoeba, etc…

There are several factors that increase your risk of developing cystitis:

  • Vaginal inflammation (colpitis) and sexually transmitted diseases. With the anatomical proximity of the vagina and urethra, the onset of cystitis is only a matter of time;
  • The same can be said about constipation and other intestinal problems (colitis, etc.). Microorganisms from the large intestine, also due to the anatomical proximity of the anus and external genital organs, are capable of provoking the formation of an acute form of the disease;
  • Nephrological diseases: kidney stones, nephritis and pyelonephritis, urinary retention. According to the descending principle, the infection often descends from the kidneys into the bladder, and with stagnation of urine, very serious pathologies and forms of the disease can develop.
  • Peak hormonal conditions. Pregnancy, menstrual cycle, menopause, etc. The reason lies in the change in the hormonal background and, as a result, the microflora of the mucous membranes of the vagina and urethra;
  • Among the predisposing factors are also endocrine diseases, especially diabetes mellitus;
  • The risk group includes allergy sufferers, as well as cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Regardless of the causes and source of the disease, cystitis includes a characteristic symptomatic complex:

  • Frequent and painful urination. Burning, drawing pains in the bladder and urethra;
  • The urge to urinate may be false;
  • Urinary incontinence (sometimes);
  • Increased urge at night without increased urine production.
  • Constant pain in the pubis and perineum, radiating to the lower back and tailbone. Pronounced pain at the beginning and end of the act of urination;
  • Dark color of urine, or cloudy, with impurities of pus;
  • General manifestations of intoxication.

If the reason lies in allergies, it may develop excruciating itching and burning in the urethra.

Complications and Consequences of Cystitis

Complications and Consequences of Cystitis in Women
Complications and Consequences of Cystitis


Cystitis is by no means a harmless disease, and the principles of “something to drink” and “it will pass by itself” do not work here.

If the course of the necessary treatment is not carried out in time, the consequences can be more than dire:

  • Kidney damage occurs along the ascending path. According to medical statistics, in 95% of cases, untreated cystitis causes severe kidney disease: pyelonephritis, nephritis. The most formidable consequence is renal failure, which is formed due to excessive poisoning of the tissues of the paired organ with the waste products of the infectious agent;
  • Women can suffer from the return of urine from the bladder back to the kidneys. This is extremely rare. More often, a similar syndrome (vesicoureteral reflux) develops in children;
  • Long-term and at the same time ineffective treatment can lead to organic changes in the tissues of the organ. Degeneration of the epithelium occurs and, as a result, the bladder loses its elasticity, loses its ability to regenerate, and decreases in size. This consequence makes a person hostage to cystitis and increases the risk of bladder rupture;
  • If specific treatment is not carried out in a timely manner, the risk of the disease becoming chronic is high. Chronic cystitis, especially infectious (and most often it happens) is a source of constant inflammation. As observations show, cystitis is almost never an isolated pathology. Nearby organs are more often affected. Therefore, women suffering from chronic cystitis are at risk of becoming infertile: with relapses of the disease, an exacerbation of colpitis develops, followed by the formation of adhesions in the structures of the uterus. Thus, cystitis indirectly contributes to a decrease in reproductive function up to its absolute loss;
  • While it is difficult to call stress and depression direct complications of cystitis, they are. If the pathology is not cured in time, it becomes chronic. Relapses of the disease are frequent, and can happen almost several times a month. The disease exerts the strongest psychological pressure on a person, literally making a healthy member of society a hostage to the toilet. In addition, a dominant is formed in the human mind;
  • Weakening of the sphincter of the bladder. May lead to the development of urinary incontinence. Most often, it develops in older people.

Diagnosis of Cystitis

Primary diagnostics includes full-time examination by specialized specialists: urologist, nephrologist, gynecologist.

Specialists collect anamnesis and establish possible causes of the onset of the disease.

When collecting anamnesis, doctors are especially careful about risk factors:

  • Unprotected intercourse;
  • Hypothermia;
  • Excessive emotional stress;
  • Medicines taken
  • The presence of concomitant diseases and pathologies (in the area of ​​the pelvic organs in the first place).

Laboratory Research


  • Delivery of a general blood test. In general, according to the results, a picture of the inflammatory process is formed, an increase in ESR, leukocytosis is possible. However, there may be no blood changes at all. A general blood test shows whether there are more dangerous diseases “masquerading” as cystitis: oncology, etc…;
  • Delivery of a general urine test. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, protein are found in the urine, the urine itself is cloudy, it may be mixed with blood or pus. In the hemorrhagic form of the disease, the urine is pink;
  • Delivery of urine analysis for crops according to Nechiporenko. Helps to identify the causative agent of the disease.

Among the instrumental methods, two main ones are used:

  • Ureteroscopy and cystoscopy. Endoscopic examinations are aimed at visual examination of the state of the mucous membranes of the urethra and bladder. Despite the discomfort during these procedures, their information content is extremely high.
  • Ultrasound examination of the bladder. Allows you to determine organic changes on the part of the organ.

How to Remove an Attack of Cystitis?

Cystitis Prevention
Cystitis Prevention

Acute cystitis attacks are extremely painful for patients. The intensity of pain and discomfort can be very high. First and foremost, how to relieve an acute attack of cystitis is to consume as much fluid as possible. Many people believe that with cystitis, you need to drink less water, then the pain and other manifestations will go away. This is a fundamentally misunderstanding of the problem. Without enough water, an attack can take a long time. Due to increased fluid intake, foreign substances and microorganisms are quickly evacuated from the body, and pain relief occurs.

In severe cases, it is recommended to resort to medication:

  • The best solution would be to take antispasmodics. They eliminate spasms and contribute to a decrease in the tone of the smooth muscles of the bladder: No-shpa, Spazmalgon, Papaverine, etc.;
  • In addition to antispasmodics, pain relievers analgesics (reducing the conductivity of nerve endings). Analgin, Ketorol and others;
  • In no case should you take antibacterial drugs on your own. Taking antibiotics is guaranteed to lead to a change in the picture of laboratory tests, and a specialist will not be able to establish the source and cause of the disease. Such measures are fraught with insufficient impact on the source of the problem. By self-medication, the patient can only drown out the disease and remove the symptoms, but the disease will turn into a chronic form;
  • If the diagnosis is confirmed and already known to the patient, antibacterial drugs can be taken. Among the effective drugs are Nolitsin, Furadonin, Monural. Furadonin is at the same time a powerful diuretic, therefore, it is recommended to combine the intake of these drugs with increased fluid intake (it is better to stay on plain pure non-carbonated water).

In all other cases, it is better not to self-medicate. Attacks of complicated cystitis (with blood, hemorrhagic, etc.) are removed exclusively in a hospital setting. Otherwise, life-threatening bleeding may develop.

How to Treat Cystitis in Women?

Treatment of cystitis is a responsible event that requires the efforts of several specialists at once: urologist, gynecologist, nephrologist. With proper therapy, a complete cure for cystitis occurs after 7-12 days from the start of treatment.

Since most often cystitis in women develops due to an infectious lesion, specific therapy is aimed at destroying pathogens.

Means for the regeneration of the bladder mucosa. One of the newer terms in the treatment of chronic cystitis is glycosaminoglycan. Therapy with its use refers to substitution. A healthy bladder has a protective layer on the inside; it is a membrane that protects the walls of the bladder from contact with urine and bacteria in it. Glycosaminoglycans (which include the well-known hyaluronic acid), as well as chondroitin sulfate, and form this shell. And its destruction due to various factors is one of the causes of cystitis. Therefore, the introduction of the components of the protective layer into the bladder will help regenerate the membrane and restore its protective properties. These drugs include: Monurel, Urolife, Uro-hyal.

Antibiotics In recent years, drugs from the group of fluoroquinolones, for example, ciprofloxacin (Ciprolet A, Cifran), and nitrofurans (Furadonin), and other antibiotics for cystitis have proven their effectiveness. Taking these drugs is possible only as directed by a specialist.

If the diagnostic results reveal specific pathogens, appropriate anti fungal, antimicrobial or antiviral drugs are prescribed.

Treatment of Cystitis
Treatment of Cystitis

Anti-inflammatory drugs. They are essential to fight cystitis as it is an inflammatory disease. The most effective is Ibuprofen, which can be found in pharmacies under different trade names: Nurofen, Ibuklin, Mig, Faspik and others.

With severe pain. To eliminate severe pain, antispasmodics and analgesics are recommended: No-shpa, Drotaverin, Papaverin, Diclofenac, Nimesil (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).

Herbal preparations. It is also recommended to take herbal preparations for cystitis: Canephron, Cyston, Fitolizin, Monurel (cranberry-based drug).

Herbs. In the absence of allergy to medicinal herbs, it is allowed to take herbal teas based on lingonberry, horsetail, bearberry. Preference should be given to unpackaged products.

Probiotics. They are used to normalize the microflora of the vagina and intestines, since it is precisely such infections that are often the root cause of cystitis. For this, preparations with lacto and bifidobacteria are effective: RioFlora Balance, Bifiform, Hilak Forte, Acipol, RioFlora Immuno. Taking probiotics will allow you to avoid re-illness and cope with the chronic form of cystitis.

Water. To quickly eliminate toxins from the body, it is recommended to increase the daily volume of fluid intake.

All medications should only be taken as directed by your doctor and in the dosage prescribed by him. Remember that exceeding the dose of any drug on the list can be hazardous to your health.

Home Remedies of Cystitis

Dill seeds. They have a bactericidal effect and are therefore effective in cystitis. Decoction of ordinary dill seeds helps relieve inflammation and reduce pain.

To prepare the broth, grind dry seeds (for example, in a coffee grinder), put them in a thermos (or wrap them with a blanket) and pour boiling water over: 1 tablespoon of raw materials per 1 cup of boiling water. The broth is insisted for 2-3 hours, half a glass is taken 1-2 times a day.

Chamomile. This popularly known anti-inflammatory agent is also effective for cystitis. Effectively destroys bacteria, relieves spasms, relieves pain. To prepare the broth, take dry chamomile flowers, chop and fill with boiling water: 1 tablespoon of flowers – a glass of boiling water. Insist for 15 minutes, then strain. Take 1/3 cup 3 times daily with meals.

Parsley. These fragrant greens are effective in killing bacteria. For cystitis, a decoction is also used: 1-2 tablespoons of fresh crushed leaves are poured with two glasses of cold water. Insist the remedy for 8 hours and then take in small portions throughout the day.

Bearberry. It has a strong diuretic effect, due to which it removes bacteria from the bladder. Therefore, it should be taken with caution if you have kidney disease. And also during pregnancy and lactation. Bearberry should also not be given to children under 12 years old. To prepare the solution, pour 1 tablespoon of bearberry leaves with a glass of boiling water and place in a hot water bath for 30 minutes. Then cool and strain. Take a tablespoon 5-6 times a day.

Prevention of Cystitis – Useful Tips for Women

It is imperative to follow the rules of personal hygiene. For washing, you need to choose funds that are neutral in their acid-base properties. Proper intimate care is the key to the absence of relapses.

It is recommended to empty the bladder as often as possible. Stagnation of urine is fraught with the development of complications.

Hypothermia should not be allowed. Keep your feet warm and dry.

At the time of exacerbation of the disease, it is worth increasing the volume of fluid consumed to 2-2.5 liters per day: water, fresh natural juices, cranberry juice. You should refrain from drinking carbonated water and artificial drinks.

Both with acute cystitis and with exacerbation of chronic cystitis, you should refuse to wear tight synthetic underwear.

Constipation indirectly affects the risk of developing cystitis. Therefore, preventive measures also include methods for improving intestinal motility.

FAQ: Answers to Popular Questions

Cystitis FAQ

Which Doctor Should I Go For Cystitis?

The first step is to make an accurate diagnosis. A specialist working with the problems of the human excretory system is a urologist. With a visit to the urologist, you should start the fight against cystitis. To clarify the diagnosis, the first thing to do is to pass a urine test. In most typical cases, this is sufficient. Only a urologist can correctly and unambiguously interpret the results of laboratory research. In addition, the urologist prescribes urine sampling for bacterial culture according to Nechiporenko, cystoscopy and ultrasound examination of the bladder.

Based on the complexity of cystitis, it is imperative to visit a gynecologist. Often, cystitis in women is provoked by sexually transmitted diseases, but even if the reason is in other infectious agents, it is important to exclude colpitis and uterine lesions in order to timely protect yourself from loss of reproductive function, and also to minimize the risk of developing chronic pathologies of the genital organs.

You should also visit a nephrologist. Kidney diseases, which often occur after cystitis, are most dangerous for the life and health of the patient. In the early stages, kidney disease may not be visible. This is just an illusion. In fact, there is an active degeneration of the kidney tissue and the loss of its functions by the organ. In order to protect yourself from the appearance of renal failure (and therefore from the need for hemodialysis, donor kidney transplantation, death), it is important to plan a trip to the nephrologist immediately upon detection of suspicious symptoms.

Thus, three specialists should be consulted: urologist, nephrologist and gynecologist.

Is It Possible to Have Sex with Cystitis? Is It Sexually Transmitted?

Cystitis is an inflammatory disease of the bladder. Of course, it is simply impossible to become infected with cystitis through sexual intercourse.

However, there is a high probability of transmission to the partner of those infectious agents that caused cystitis. But it is necessary to make a reservation, the transmission of pathogenic microflora is possible only if the disease is of infectious origin. In all other cases, the partner is safe.

As for the other aspect of this issue, everything is not so simple here. Most competent experts recommend that women abstain from sexual activity during the illness.

There are several reasons for this:

  • During sexual intercourse, pressure can be exerted on the inflamed bladder, and here the consequences are the most unpredictable: from the return of urine back to the kidneys and their subsequent damage to the rupture of the bladder. In addition, increased symptoms are guaranteed;
  • Even if the patient has undergone treatment, the risk of recurrence remains;
  • The most obvious answer to the question asked is that sex during acute cystitis is not a pleasant activity. A woman is more likely to experience a lot of painful and uncomfortable sensations.

However, if you cannot do without sexual contact, you need to adhere to the recommendations:

  • Immediately before sex, wash your body and thoroughly treat your hands;
  • Avoid touching the vagina. During cystitis, the mucous membrane is exposed to increased stress, since it is impossible to completely protect it from the ingress of urine particles;
  • If there is a suspicion of concomitant damage to the uterus, exclude deep penetration;
  • At the end of intimacy, be sure to rinse the external genitals;
  • Use barrier contraception (condoms only).

Cystitis After Intimacy, What Are the Reasons?

The development of cystitis after sex is not a far-fetched problem. Postcoital cystitis (also called “honeymoon syndrome”) occurs in about 45% of cases. As a rule, it is detected after the first sexual contact.

There are several reasons for this:

The most common, but at the same time the most difficult to eliminate, is a congenital anomaly of the genitourinary system. If injuries were observed in the perineal region, the anomaly may be acquired. It consists in the fact that the opening of the urethra is displaced relative to its normal position downward and inward, into the vaginal area. This is the displacement of the urethral canal. Another type of anomaly is also possible, excessive channel mobility. Both pathologies are relatively easy to detect with a finger examination by a gynecologist. As a result, during sexual intercourse, the urethra is actively involved and irritated. The walls of the urethral canal are covered with micro tears and cracks. This is a direct gateway to infection. The damaged mucous membrane becomes inflamed, and further along the ascending path the infection penetrates into the bladder.

Another common cause is lack of proper hygiene. The partner may not be aware of this, while many microorganisms are located on the surface of the penis. As a result, the woman’s urethra is attacked by an infectious agent. Also, this group of reasons includes the alternation of vaginal sex and anal sex without changing the condom or without it at all. In this case, the causative agent of cystitis is the intestinal microflora (bacillus).

Vaginal dryness. Due to excessive dryness of the vaginal mucosa, tissue cracking occurs. As a result, colpitis, which quickly provokes the development of the disease. In this case, cystitis becomes a secondary disease. Therefore, you cannot have sex in the absence of desire and sufficient hydration of the genitals of a woman.

It is also worth remembering about the causative agents of sexually transmitted diseases. If the partner is sick or is a carrier, the woman quickly becomes infected, and in this case, there is a risk of not only developing a sexually transmitted disease directly, but also secondary cystitis.

Is It Possible to Play Sports with Cystitis?

In this case, everything is purely individual and depends on the patient’s condition and the severity of the course of cystitis. However, a number of physical activities must be abandoned.


  • Visits to fitness clubs. Aerobics and exercise can lead to mechanical irritation of the urethra and bladder, as a result, the symptoms will significantly worsen;
  • Swimming. Swimming is allowed, but no longer than 10-20 minutes. Prolonged exposure to cold water (30-50 minutes) is guaranteed to lead to local hypothermia. As a result of cooling, local immunity will decrease, within literally a few hours the symptoms of cystitis will become more pronounced. It is recommended to give up swimming not only for women with acute cystitis, but also for those who suffer from a chronic form of the disease. Long swimming in the pool is a direct path to relapse. Swimming is permissible without time limits only in pools where the water temperature does not drop below 30-35° C;
  • Winter sports. Almost all winter sports involve prolonged exposure to the cold. In such conditions, the risk of hypothermia and aggravation of the course of the disease increases significantly. People who are keen on figure skating are advised to dress as warmly as possible, cover the pelvic and perineal area, and in no case should sit on the ice;
  • Active sports associated with increased physical activity and a sharp increase in intra-abdominal pressure are excluded: boxing, wrestling, cycling, etc.

However, there are a number of sports that are recommended for cystitis. They evenly tense the muscles of the body and do not entail significant fatigue. These are jogging, walking, basketball, volleyball. Dancing is also allowed. It is important to remember that clothing must also be suitable. It is harmful to wear tight tight clothing. A sports suit should not be tight-fitting; preference should be given to light, but at the same time warm clothing made from natural materials.

Is It Possible to Take A Hot Bath with Cystitis?

In general, the issue is very controversial. To answer it, one must again proceed from the patient’s condition at the moment and the course of the disease. It is possible to take warm (warm, but not hot) baths only at the stage when cystitis does not yet show itself with specific symptoms. In this case, light warming up is not only not contraindicated, but also useful.

As soon as one of the following symptoms appears, thermal treatments are strictly contraindicated:

  • Muscle spasms (sharp cramping pains in the lower abdomen and pubis);
  • Burning and cramps when urinating;
  • Blood or pus in the urine.

If you continue warming up after acute symptoms are detected, there is a risk of opening life-threatening bleeding.

During menstruation or pregnancy complicated by cystitis, hot baths are strictly contraindicated (miscarriage is possible).

If we are talking only about the initial stages of the disease, warming up is allowed, but they should be applied only within reasonable limits:

  • Warming up with dry heat. The salt is heated in a dish to 38-40 ° C, poured into a cloth bag and applied to the sore spot;
  • Foot baths. The basin is filled with warm water, after which you should take a foot bath for 10-20 minutes. Then the feet are wiped dry and warm socks are put on;
  • Sitting baths. In the early stages of the development of cystitis, you can take sits baths with the addition of medicinal herbs. In this case, the water temperature should not exceed 37 ° C, and the duration of the bath should be up to 10 minutes. Even a warm bath is prohibited in cases where, in addition to the bladder, other organs are affected: kidneys, etc.;
  • Warm shower. The best way to relieve cystitis and conduct hygiene procedures during the course of the disease;
  • Warming up with warm hands. A palm is placed in the bladder area for several hours;
  • Warming compress with eucalyptus oil. Effective in the absence of acute symptoms. But it is contraindicated for allergies.

Could There Be A Delay in Menstruation with Cystitis?

There is no direct causal relationship between cystitis and menstrual irregularities. However, as mentioned earlier, cystitis in women rarely occurs only with damage to the bladder. Rising, the infection often affects the genitals, including the uterus and ovaries located in the abdominal cavity.

The ovaries are responsible for the production of estrogen, a specific female hormone that itself helps to normalize the menstrual cycle. When the infection spreads to the ovaries, the rate of estrogen production decreases. As a result, the cycle is disrupted, and then a delay in menstruation is possible.