The moles are found in 99% of the world population. The majority of birthmarks appear in a person under 25, but there are some cases when they come out later. There is nothing to worry about until the mole begin to change color or take on an asymmetrical shape. All of these can be symptoms of a malignant mole, melanoma. Let’s discuss about it and how to recognize a malignant mole in this article.
What Are Malignant Moles?
Nevi are congenital or acquired dermatological formations. They can be found anywhere on the human body: face, hands, fingers, or torso. Moles are flat or convex, different colors, smooth or hairy.
A large number of moles are not dangerous to humans, this is just a genetic sign, but under the influence of certain factors, they can transform from benign to malignant.
Doctors Distinguish 5 Types of Melanoma Prone Mole:
Borderline. It is a neoplasm of a uniform color, almost black, does not react to the effects of UV rays.
Blue. They have a characteristic color, dense structure, and rise a couple of millimeters above the skin. Most often found in Asian nationalities (on the neck, face, buttocks). Has a small size up to 1-2 cm and a hairless cut.
Giant. Measures over 10 cm in length. It grows as a person grows. Has a bumpy, warty structure, the color may be uneven, from gray to black. The most dangerous type of moles, because it is, he who most often develops into a cancerous tumor.
Nevus OTO (LTO). Pigmented patch is large, from gray to dark brown, outwardly resembling a bruise. Located on the face or under the collarbone, scapula, or deltoid muscle. Requires a mandatory examination by a doctor.
Dubreuil’s Moles. Refers to precancerous formations, it is a non-convex birthmark, with uneven edges, from light brown to black, up to 5 cm in size. Requires compulsory treatment, because in most cases, it develops into melanoma.
You may also like to read: Scars After Chickenpox: Best Ways to Restore the Skin to Its Former Smoothness?
The Main Signs of a Malignant Mole
Doctors strongly recommend that you monitor your body, from time to time examine it for new moles or other incomprehensible neoplasms. To recognize how much a mole is, scientists developed the ABCDE method, each of the letters of this English abbreviation in the name indicates signs of a dangerous mole:
A – Asymmetry. Normally, a healthy mole is a symmetrical shape (circle), i.e. if you draw an imaginary line through its center, then both halves will be equal.
B – Irregular Outlines. One of the main visual signs of melanoma is the fuzzy edges of the mole.
C – Color. A healthy mole should be of a uniform color, any reddish, black shades should worry you.
D – Diameter. A mole over 6 mm in diameter requires special attention.
E – Development. For any physiological changes in the nevus (color, size, shape), you should immediately consult a doctor. This may mean the birthmark is reborn.
This means the variability of any characteristic: color, shape, size – all this is a reason to pay a visit to a dermatologist. Normally, moles remain unchanged throughout life.
In addition, the characteristic signs of a change in a mole into a malignant one are:
- mutation of the surface texture of the nevus, peeling, redness, discoloration;
- compaction of a mole and its rapid growth;
- the occurrence of discomfort: itching, burning, tingling;
- the appearance of red spots around the mole, which many may confuse with allergies.
Nevi are reborn into malignant formations, in a special risk group are:
- owners of white skin, blond hair and eyes, i.e. Slavic face type. Also, at risk are people with freckles;
- if there are a large number of moles on the body (100-150);
- large voluminous moles with uneven contours;
- the presence of cancer patients in the first related line (parents, grandmothers, grandfathers);
- excessive exposure to UV rays. It has been proven that in warm countries, where the number of sunny days is more than cloudy, melanoma is diagnosed much more often. Additionally, childhood sunburn increases the risk of developing cancer cells in adulthood;
- Advice! Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun, especially between 11.00-16.00.
- according to statistics, men are more likely to get melanoma;
- retirement age. In old age, benign formations are much more likely to degenerate into malignant ones and are more difficult to treat;
- trauma to the nevus.
How to Diagnose Malignant Mole?
If you notice any abnormalities or changes, you should immediately contact your oncologist or dermatologist. The doctor should conduct an examination with a dermatoscope. The method consists in visual examination, due to the multiple increase in the nevus. This is a kind of microscope, it allows you to see the colors of the epidural layers, the vascular network, the distribution of melanin within the subcutaneous layers. This procedure is absolutely harmless and takes on average 2-3 minutes per mole. If the oncologist has any suspicions, the doctor takes a biopsy, collects the cells of the “malignant” nevus and sends the tissue for examination, after which an accurate diagnosis is established. In the event that malignant melanoma is confirmed, the doctor should send the patient for an X-ray of the lungs and tomography to detect the presence or absence of metastases.
Melanoma Drug Treatment
There are many methods for treating malignant nevi, but there are 5 main methods:
Cryonic Removal. Cancers are removed with liquid nitrogen or a mixture of carbonic acid. The operation is performed under local anesthesia and takes about five minutes. The disadvantage of this procedure is that after it you cannot take material for a biopsy.
If the mole is large, then after cryodestruction there may be a burn or a scar.
Laser Destruction. It consists in removing a mole by burning out with a laser. The main advantage of this procedure is the simultaneous sealing of all blood vessels, which is especially important if the mole is bleeding heavily. But after it, you cannot take tissue for histology.
Radio Wave Treatment. The method is used for small moles located on the skin surface. The radio wave does not burn out the tissue of the neoplasm, which makes it possible to take material for biopsy. After radio wave therapy, no scar remains, only a rapidly healing wound.
Electrotherapy. This treatment burns out the growth using low-frequency electricity. This is a very painful method that leaves behind scars, so it is rarely used.
Surgical Removal. This treatment is used when melanoma is deeply spread into the tissue. Cancer cells are excised along with the surrounding tissue.
If you want to get rid of a mole only for aesthetic reasons, then it should be understood that the scar will not remain only if the size of the nevus does not exceed 5 mm.
Unfortunately, cancer is not a disease that can be left to chance and relies only on folk remedies. This method of treatment is possible only after consulting an oncologist or as a complex method. The wrong treatment can cost a person health.
Here are the most popular home recipes for malignant mole:
Carrot Juice. This vegetable contains a large number of vitamins and substances that suppress the development of cancerous tumors. Juice is recommended to drink 50 g per day for a month, as well as apply lotions to the affected areas.
Lotions from Carrot and Hemlock Juice. Mix the plant sap in a 2: 1 ratio and apply it to the affected area 3-5 times a day. For best results, you can add more yarrow juice.
Cottage Cheese. This useful product should be applied to a malignant nevus for 2-3 weeks. The wound may hurt at first, but then it will soften and the pain will go away.
Celandine Ointment. It is necessary to prepare an ointment of their celandine juice and petroleum jelly in a 1: 4 ratio or mix dry grass and petroleum jelly in a 1: 1 ratio.
Burdock Root Ointment. For her you need one yolk, butter and grated burdock root. All components are mixed and cooked in a water bath until smooth. The resulting cream is applied to the affected areas 2-3 times a day.
There are also special decoctions to help cope with melanoma:
- A mixture of Nettle leaves, angelica and coriander, at the rate of 1 tbsp. herbs in 200 ml of water, infused during the day. The broth takes 400-600 ml throughout the day.
- Tincture of aconite (borets). Take one hour before meals for 40 days. Starting with one drop, the rate is increased every day until it is brought to 20, and then again reduced to one.
- A decoction of wild hops, yarrow, nettle, elderberry, pear, meadowsweet, duckweed, agrimony taken in equal proportions is infused for 3-6 hours and taken 100 ml every day after meals.
How Can You Protect Yourself?
In order to prevent the degeneration of a malignant mole into melanoma, several rules must be followed:
- constantly monitor the growth and condition of moles, in case of any changes, immediately consult a doctor;
- avoid injury to the nevus, mechanical and other damage;
- watch out for exposure to the sun, avoid excessive tanning, do not go to saunas;
- in no case scratch moles, do not remove them yourself or self-medicate;
- eat foods high in vitamin D (liver, oily fish, egg yolk).
- By observing these basic rules, you reduce the risk of developing oncology by 60%.
Remember, any disease is treatable if treatment is started on time under the supervision of experienced specialists.