For one reason or another, each person sometimes has to take a urine test – an aqueous solution of electrolytes and organic substances. It contains 92-99% water and many different components. But maybe not everyone knows exactly what parameters doctors determine by examining this fluid. Basically, every day with urine, the body gets rid of about 50 – 70 dry substances, including urea and sodium chloride. The composition of urine can change under certain conditions and proteins can be found in it.
Proteins are involved in the processes of vital activity of cells, with their help cellular structures are formed. Normally, they should not be in the urine, sometimes traces of protein are determined. Urine is formed in the nephron of the kidney, where the blood is filtered from toxic substances formed by drugs or metabolic products. Kidney “filters” pass molecules with low molecular weight through themselves, and due to the fact that proteins have a large mass, they cannot penetrate into the urine through filters.
As soon as the proteins albumin, alpha, beta and gamma globulins appear in the urine, this means that kidney function is impaired or renal tissue is affected. In adolescents, the excretion of protein in the urine (proteinuria) is observed in kidney diseases, disorders of the endocrine system, in malignant neoplasms, and any inflammatory processes of the body. Proteinuria by volume of protein secreted can be:
- Moderate with a value of up to 1 g of protein per day;
- Medium – from 1 to 3 g of protein per day;
- Expressed (severe) – more than 3 g of protein per day.
Allocate physiological proteinuria, which does not have a negative effect on the adolescent’s body. It appears during a period of intensive growth, during physical exertion, stress, due to infectious diseases, and disappears as soon as, for example, a fever passes, or during a period of lack of physical activity. A general urine test should be done at any age, especially for children and adolescents during the period of planned vaccinations or after various colds.
If a protein is found in the urine of a teenager, this may be a signal of serious problems, for the elimination of which it is necessary to consult a doctor and prescribe medications after clarifying the main diagnosis. With adolescent proteinuria, treatment is carried out for the ailment that caused the increase in protein. Antibacterial agents, cytostatics, glucocorticosteroids, etc. are used. If protein is found in the urine in an acute period of inflammation of urological organs, then the treatment includes adherence to bed rest, this helps to prevent the formation of a chronic form.
Proteinuria in Adolescents
Increased urine protein or proteinuria can be false or true. With true proteinuria, for example, urological ailments manifested by bone pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, dizziness, chills with fever, anemia, vomiting, or nausea are detected.
Urinalysis is very important, and if an increased protein content is found in it, this may be a sign of kidney disease, diabetes, leukemia . Basically, an overestimated protein value warns of possible various forms of nephritis. In adolescent boys, protein may appear, triggered by kidney disease, hemolytic anemia, muscle disease, cardiovascular failure, cancer and damage to the genitourinary organs.
Orthostatic proteinuria in adolescents does not require special treatment, because it occurs with a long stay in an upright position, which leads to impaired renal hemodynamic function. This condition is absolutely harmless, so there is no need to prohibit adolescents from leading an active lifestyle, physical activity does not harm the kidneys, but only contributes to the appearance of a small amount of protein in the urine.
If the doctor prescribes repeated tests, then they must be taken in order to monitor possible changes in the amount of protein in the urine. A salt-free diet is often prescribed to lower urine protein levels. In rare cases, they resort to the use of special drugs.
Today, in laboratory urine tests, a qualitative reaction method is used that does not detect protein in the urine of a healthy person. If this method detects protein in the urine, then the protein is quantified. As a prophylaxis for an increase in protein in the urine of a teenager, a diet is prescribed that assumes good nutrition, alternation of plant and protein foods, because, as it is known, one of the reasons for the high level of protein in the urine is the excessive consumption of meat, eggs and raw milk.
With a high protein, for example, due to pyelonephritis, antibiotics, sulfonamides, nitrofurans, nitroxoline are used. The choice of means, the duration of treatment, the doctor determines depending on the individual characteristics of the patient. The effectiveness of treatment increases with systematic monitoring of the adolescent’s condition. This avoids the consequences and increases the chances of recovery.